πŸ€‘ Reinforcement Schedules | Introduction to Psychology

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The new behavior is acquired on a continuous schedule of reinforcement (CRF). and variable reinforcement are possible: (1) fixed and variable ratio (FR/VR), On the other hand, a duration schedule involves a fixed or a variable length of time if reinforcement is suddenly withdrawn, the learned behavior will extinguish.


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Operant conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement - Behavior - MCAT - Khan Academy

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There are two types of continuous schedules: Fixed Ratio. A fixed ratio schedule refers to applying the reinforcement after a specific number of behaviors.


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The Four Schedules of Reinforcement in Behaviorism

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Appendix E includes examples for you to use within your instruction. More studies use fixed ratio (FR) schedules of food reinforcement than any other schedule. stronger stimulus control than a tandem variable-interval fixed-ratio schedule, Notably, this extinguished preference can be reinstated by a priming dose of.


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Operant Conditioning Schedule of Reinforcement Explained!

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These schedules may be of history on variable-time (VT) target to be reinforced on intermittent ratio that was initially extinguished; this is Research on behavioral momentum typically involves reinforcing responses on a​.


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Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement

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A fixed ratio schedule is one in which the reward always occurs after a fixed number of Fixed ratio schedules produce strong learning, but the learning extinguishes Finally, in the variable interval schedule, reinforcement is presented at.


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Schedules of Reinforcement

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A fixed-ratio schedule is one in which the reward always occurs after a fixed Variable-interval, like variable-ratio, is more difficult to extinguish than fixed.


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Learning: Schedules of Reinforcement

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A fixed ratio schedule is one in which the reward always occurs after a fixed number of Fixed ratio schedules produce strong learning, but the learning extinguishes Finally, in the variable interval schedule, reinforcement is presented at.


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Variable Ratio Schedule

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Interval schedules may specify a fixed time period between reinforcers (Fixed Interval schedule) or a variable time period between reinforcers (Variable Interval​.


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Schedules of Reinforcement

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Negative reinforcement (reinforcement, stimulus withdrawn) involves the Importantly, punishment only decreases, but does not extinguish a behavior. types of reinforcement schedules: (1) fixed ratio; (2) fixed interval; (3) variable ratio; and.


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variable ratio example

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We therefore call such a schedule of reinforcement a RATIO SCHEDULE. The simpler, called fixed-interval schedules, involves reinforcing the subject for some average point, this type of schedule is called a variable-interval schedule. has shown that a behavior that is reinforced intermittently does not extinguish as.


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Schedules of Reinforcement

Researchers frequently chose fixed-interval FI schedules as the target because responses during the interval do not affect the delivery of the reinforcer, permitting widely disparate response rates to result in similar reinforcement rates. In these studies, the simple responses and contingencies such as button pressing and points often already exist in the participants' repertoires or environments. To make DRA more practical for caregiver implementation, the alternative response is sometimes reinforced on an interval schedule rather than a ratio schedule e. Typically, two or more reinforcement schedules are chosen as history schedules. Different groups of pigeons were exposed to FR, VR, or DRL histories and a progressive-ratio PR; the number of responses required for reinforcement gradually increases target schedule. The discussion is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather will focus on the potential implications of reinforcement history for applied behavior analysis and the current state of the literature in relation to applied research. Remote reinforcement history may exert more of an influence when a distinct stimulus is correlated with the history schedule and is later presented during the target schedule. After responding stabilized on these history schedules, a VI schedule could be introduced in the presence of both the stimuli. The results of Ono and Iwabuchi's and LeFrancois and Metzger's studies suggested that reinforcement history effects may not always be as durable as initially indicated by Weiner e. First, the naturally occurring reinforcement schedules that maintain behavior may share features with interval schedules e. Like the human operant studies discussed above, most experiments using nonhuman subjects have examined the effects of schedule history on subsequent responding using interval schedules e. Those rats exposed to only DRL as the history schedule predictably responded at low rates during the FI target schedule, and those rats with a history of both DRL and FR responded at high rates during the FI target schedule. This paucity of research could be due to the characteristically high rates of responding produced by ratio schedules, making them inappropriate to demonstrate rate-increasing history effects. Response rates during the PR target schedule were highest initially for the group with the VR history. This type of effect may make it possible to effectively reduce problem behavior and increase appropriate behavior, at least temporarily, even when the treatment cannot be immediately implemented with ideal integrity in the natural environment. In both of the nonhuman studies, the effects of reinforcement history were eventually diminished by continued exposure to the current contingencies, although Weiner argued that history effects may be long lasting. The bulk of research on reinforcement history has examined the effects of history on subsequent interval schedules. The temporary reinforcement history effects support Sidman's assertion that history effects are part of and perhaps even define a transition state. For example, treatment sessions conducted by a therapist could include the presence of the client's caregivers or could be conducted in the client's home. The focus is on reinforcement history effects in the context of reinforcement schedules commonly used either to strengthen behavior e. For example, experimenters could assess the rate at which a child will complete a task on an FI reinforcement schedule. Third, Weiner's findings could have implications for interventions that include a differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior DRA component, to the extent that interval schedules are easier to implement than ratio schedules because responding need only be monitored at the programmed reinforcement interval. This may be particularly the case for individuals who have set daily schedules, in which a particular reinforcer e. Results of human operant experiments e. Individuals who have a history with ratio-like DRA schedules may allocate more time to appropriate responding, even if the programmed contingencies for appropriate behavior and problem behavior are changed to equal-interval schedules. The paper is organized by the effects of various histories on reinforcement schedules commonly used as interventions. An additional group of pigeons was exposed to the PR schedule from the beginning of the experiment to serve as a control for changes in responding that may simply be due to continued participation in the experiment. Given that only a handful of applied studies have directly examined reinforcement history effects, the bulk of the current discussion focuses on nonhuman research and its implications. For example, the human participants used in Weiner's experiments may have had extensive histories with naturally operating schedules that resembled FI, FR, and DRL schedules, but half of the rats used by LeFrancois and Metzger were naive. Other features of the natural environment could be gradually added to the treatment procedure before the therapist concludes treatment services. Thus, current reinforcement contingencies may influence response rate only in conjunction with previous reinforcement history, even if the prior history does not immediately precede the target schedule. In addition, ratio schedules are likely to quickly override the effects of history schedules that typically produce low response rates because ratio schedules, unlike interval schedules, select against low response rates e. If the effects of reinforcement history are short lived, they should be of less concern. The durability of reinforcement history effects has important implications for the development and implementation of effective behavioral interventions. These results have relevance to application in three ways. Research by Cohen et al. Nevertheless, nonhuman laboratory studies may have limited external validity. Both groups of rats were later exposed to an FI target schedule. Weiner's , experiments established that, under certain conditions, even distant reinforcement history can influence responding. The notion of reinforcement history is central to the philosophical orientation of behaviorism; however, relatively little empirical work has focused directly on its influence with human participants in socially meaningful contexts Salzinger, ; Wanchisen, Most of the research on reinforcement history has been conducted in nonhuman laboratories, using operant chambers e. This suggests that reinforcement history effects, particularly those engendering low-rate responding, may be substantially less pronounced during ratio target schedules than during interval target schedules. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and interpreted the findings in relation to possible applied significance. In a second experiment, pigeons were exposed to the same history schedules, but were removed from the experimental situation for 6 months before the target schedule was introduced instead of being exposed to the VI schedule. If the rate of responding is lower than desired, a history with a DRH schedule, which is essentially an FR or variable-ratio VR schedule with a certain time limit to complete the response requirement, could be provided for completing the task; then the FI schedule could be reintroduced. Controlled laboratory experiments using human participants also have involved operant chambers. In particular, some nonhuman research contradicted Weiner's assertion that reinforcement history effects are durable. Specifically, reinforcement history may have very durable effects when the history schedules are associated with particular stimulus conditions e. Weiner's research used a human operant procedure, in which humans participated in experimental situations akin to traditional nonhuman operant chambers. That is, historical influences may persist in the face of current contingencies. Applied studies characteristically have evaluated reinforcement history effects only indirectly insofar as those effects were not the central focus of the research e. In addition, applied research should be conducted on the influence of histories that are associated with particular stimulus conditions, such as a hospital facility or the home environment. The effect of a history with these schedules is later assessed on responding during the target schedule. When reintroduced into the experimental setting, the pigeons still responded at higher rates in the presence of the stimulus previously associated with the DRH schedule than in the presence of the stimulus previously associated with the DRL schedule. This type of procedure would be a systematic replication of the Ono and Iwabuchi study but with a socially relevant response. Second, Weiner's , work implies that researchers could use reinforcement history effects to improve behavioral performance. For example, researchers could associate a DRH schedule with the presence of a red stimulus and a DRL schedule with the presence of a green stimulus for individuals working on academic tasks. Treatments using DRA schedules typically involve extinction reinforcers are withheld following problem behavior of maladaptive behavior and reinforcement of some alternative behavior, with the characteristic effect of increasing appropriate behavior and decreasing problem behavior. However, a comparison of the cumulative records of the experienced and naive rats did not show any clear differences, suggesting that the extraexperimental reinforcement history could not account entirely for the obtained results. The authors also noted that differences in extraexperimental reinforcement history could contribute to the discrepant results. LeFrancois and Metzger attributed these findings to differences in experimental procedures, such as the method of training, the specific schedule parameters, or the use of primary instead of conditioned reinforcers. Although the overall effects found in the nonhuman literature also suggested that reinforcement history influenced responding, the specific findings differed from Weiner's , results. This result was replicated across multiple experiments using different interval durations during the FI target schedule.

Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice.

Early human operant research using FI target schedules characterizes the procedures Weiner, In one study Weiner,participants were divided into groups and exposed to one of three history schedules: fixed-ratio FR 40, differential reinforcement of low rate DRL 20 s, or DRL 20 s followed by FR Then, all participants were exposed to an FI target schedule.

To make the Ono and Iwabuchi findings more directly relevant to application, further research is needed in which the participants are exposed to a treatment schedule such as DRA, differential reinforcement of other behavior DRO; reinforcers delivered contingent on the absence of behavioror fixed time FT; reinforcers are delivered a fixed points in time, regardless of responding as the target schedule.

An alternative explanation for the discrepant results is the use of schedule-correlated stimuli, which were used by Weiner but not by LeFrancois and Metzger It is this alternative explanation that carries direct implications for application.

In a sense, a schedule history might be arranged to produce a bias toward appropriate behavior. Behavioral assessments and interventions are influenced by a participant's reinforcement history. Second, interval schedules may be used for the acquisition and maintenance of appropriate behavior, such as academic tasks or on-task behavior in classrooms a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement involves and is to extinguish.

First, when different effects of a similar manipulation e. For instance, most nonhuman subjects start experiments naive to the contingencies in effect or have only limited experience with the experimental environment.

Further, the effects of reinforcement history on humans may be dramatically different than the effects on nonhumans because of verbal behavior Branch, Although specific methods for determining the effects of reinforcement history have varied widely, the most common approach involves evaluating the effects of prior exposure to reinforcement schedules e.

This may be more similar to applied problems than nonhuman experiments because participants in applied research often have an extensive history with the response or click to see more complex reinforcement contingencies that maintain the response in the natural environment.

To this end, the discussion is focused on the effects of reinforcement history on schedules commonly used for acquisition and maintenance of appropriate behavior interval and ratio schedules and for reduction of problem behavior time-based schedules and extinction.

An advantage of nonhuman research is that it allows more control over the reinforcement histories experienced by the subjects. Once stable rates or patterns of responding have been attained during the history schedule, responding is assessed on the target schedule to evaluate possible influences of the reinforcement history.

With continued exposure to the new contingencies, the differences in response rate between the two stimulus conditions gradually decreased, but never reached equality. For example, LeFrancois and Metzger systematically replicated Weiner's procedures by exposing one group of 3 rats to a DRL history schedule and another group of 3 rats to DRL followed by FR as a history schedule.

This type of manipulation may be useful if continually monitoring response rates, a necessary feature of DRH schedules, is impossible or undesirable e.

A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement involves and is to extinguish, further research is needed to clarify the conditions under which Weiner'sresults are replicated.

To investigate this possibility, Ono and Iwabuchi demonstrated that pigeons responded at higher rates in the presence of a stimulus that was previously associated with the differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate DRH schedule than in the presence of a stimulus that was previously associated with the DRL schedule, even when exposed to 15 sessions of VI between the history and test schedules although these differences decreased across time.

In many applied experiments, for example, participants are referred specifically because they display some undesired response for a substantial period of time e. The purpose of the current paper is to examine literature on reinforcement history with an eye toward application.

The effects of reinforcement history on FI schedules may be important in applied work for at least two reasons. By reinforcement history, we refer to a participant's exposure to various schedules or contingencies of reinforcement that are no longer in place.

Therefore, FI schedules may maximize the potential for evaluating reinforcement history effects because they do not select against particular rates or patterns of responding.

However, these effects were temporary and were evident only through the first several PR sessions, suggesting that the a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement involves and is to extinguish of reinforcement history effects may be less likely during ratio-based interventions.

Weiner's findings suggested that certain effects of reinforcement history may influence behavior even when the organism has experienced an intervening history or has substantial exposure to the current reinforcement contingencies. Within each section, discussion is further divided into laboratory research and applied research with future directions. If this study replicated the Ono and Iwabuchi findings, research could begin to examine the effects of histories and target schedules that are more commonly used in applied work e. Relatively few studies have examined the effects of reinforcement history on ratio target schedules. For instance, the effects of an FR schedule history persisted when the target schedule required low response rates and punished high-rate responding e. By contrast, the participants without a DRL history responded at high rates during the FI conditions. Although researchers have hypothesized that behavioral history contributes to between-subjects differences e.